HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF HIP SURGERY Home BioHip Mechanics Replacement Problems Hip Replacement History Contact Osteoarthrosis Solution BIO HIP
  Hip replacement surgery is without doubt one of the most important surgical advances of the last century and has helped ease the  suffering and disability of countless people throughout the world.   Rudimentary efforts have been documented throughout the history of hip replacement surgery from as early as the17th century. Among the more daring were the experimental uses of materials implemented such as: celluloid, silver plates, rubber struts, magnesium, zinc, glass, pyres, de calcified bones, wax, muscle tissue and celluloid. Of course, there were no long term success stories achieved whilst experimenting with these materials as the body almost always reacted against them. These materials were also unable to cope with the stress of supporting body weight for long periods of time. These early experimental days did however start paving the way for surgeons’ successful attempts at hip replacement surgery. Throughout the early days of prosthesis surgery, most operations were performed to replace only one of the joints and through the experimental years there was also risk of infection that was inherent before the advent of antibiotics.    The use of artificial hips were slowly becoming better known within medical circles by the 1930s, though it was still rare for someone to undergo hip replacement surgery throughout this period. There were also experimental attempts to replace joints with Teflon, which seemed like a good idea at the time, but the Teflon prosthesis itself normally wore out within two to three years, or eventually caused patients to suffer osteolysis, which is where the bone starts to dissolve and be reabsorbed by the body. Even though these first hip replacement surgeries seemed rudimentary, they were considered to be a better alternative than the crippling and severe pain that was endured by people suffering arthritis. One of the major problems with the experimental materials was that the articulating surfaces inserted in the joints were unable to be naturally lubricated by the body which made them to wear each other down and eventually loosen; making it necessary to replace the joints again by performing revision surgery. Artificial joints were eventually being manufactured from steel or chrome which had a much better ‘hip life’ due to the materials superior strength non corrosive quality.  Orthopaedic surgery owes a great deal of its development to its role in military conflicts that occurred throughout the first half of the century... Advancements and the minds behind them...... Dr. McKee. By the early 1950s, a British orthopaedic surgeon, Dr. McKee had designed a prosthesis on the femoral side that articulated with a three claw type cup that was screwed into the acetabulum (the surface of the joint that the ball joint fits into). The initial high incidences of failure resulted from the loosening of components, as there was no adequate holding cement available to keep the prosthesis in place for long periods of time. It was throughout the 1960s that Hip replacement surgery became more widespread and available to patients. At the XIX World Congress of Surgery/International College of Surgeons (1974) Dr. McKee presented results from the first 300 total hip prosthesis and concluded that the most important principle was to obtain the firm fixation of components in the bone using screws, then later using acrylic cement. Dr. San Baw In 1960 a Burmese orthopaedic surgeon, Dr. San Baw who was chief of the orthopaedic surgery unit at the Mandalay General Hospital in Burma pioneered the use of ivory hip prostheses to replace united fractures of the neck of the femur. Dr. San Baw at first bravely used an ivory prosthesis to replace the fractured hip bone of an 83 year old Burmese Buddhist nun. He continued his work up until the 1980s’ with considerable success and is now famous for it.   Dr. Peter Ring, from Surrey, England started his clinical experience  with cement- less components with a metal-on-metal articulation in 1964. Some of his  early Arthroplasty surgery provided surprisingly good results with up to 97% of  implants surviving years of follow up.  Sir John Charnley The modern artificial joint owes much to the work of Professor John Charnley from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Dr. Charnleys’ work throughout the 1970s’ in the field of tribology resulted in a design that completely replaced previous designs prior to the 1970s. Charnley's design consisted of three parts which were: a stainless steel metal femoral component (the ball attached to the femur) which connected to an Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene acetabular component. Both of these prosthesis were fixed to the bone using the third and last element; a specially manufactured bone cement. The replacement joint was known as the Low Friction Arthroplasty and was lubricated with synovial fluid. The small femoral head on occasion produced wear and tear problems which made it suitable only for much older patients with less mobility, however there was a huge reduction in resulting friction which led to excellent clinical results. For over two decades, the ‘Charnley Low Friction Arthroplasty’ design was the most used system in the world, far surpassing other available options created by McKee and Ring, though all three men had contributed to the successful hip replacement surgery by this time.   Dr Charnley was eventually knighted by the Queen for his innovation and efforts within prosthesis surgery that helped thousands of patients throughout the world.     Since then improvements in joint replacement surgery, techniques and the technology used have increased the effectiveness of total hip replacement, though it still remains to this day an invasive and aggressive surgical procedure. The greatest advances have been implemented by surgeons themselves, which is not surprising as these are the men responsible for carrying out and overseeing the surgery, which gave them the insight to create new ideas and inventions.   Modern day Prosthesis operations Throughout the last decade, several evolutionary developments have been created within total hip replacement procedures and prosthesis. Many hip implants are made of a ceramic material rather than polyethylene, which some research indicates dramatically reduces joint wear. Metal-on-metal implants are also gaining popularity. However several  Orthopaedic manufacturers have now removed this type of hip prosthesis due to the many complications these prosthesis create such as metal corrosion and the infiltration of metal particles within the body. Most implants are now joined without cement; the prosthesis is given a porous texture into which bone grows. However this method is still deemed to be invasive. Hip Resurfacing Surgery... Hip resurfacing is generally used as an alternative to total hip replacement and is often suggested for active patients under the age of 55.  Hip replacement surgery was adapted in the 1970s’ and came with some success, but surgeons preferred to opt for hip replacement surgery because of the early complications that resurfacing surgery was causing. Improvements over the last two decades have made hip resurfacing surgery more attractive and can now be a better option for some patients, especially younger and active people. Hip resurfacing surgery is very different from hip replacement surgery because the femur head is reshaped and then resurfaced with a metallic shell. A metal socket is then inserted into the pelvis to support the newly resurfaced femur joint. This surgical procedure reduces pain and ensures better joint stability. The chance of dislocation also lowers if resurfacing surgery is performed rather than with a total hip replacement. Revision surgery from resurfacing the hip bones is also not as complicated and less healthy bone is lost through this type of surgery.
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A Brief History of Prosthesis innovation..
1950s Dr. McKee  designs a prosthesis on the femoral side that articulates with a three claw cup that screwed into the acetabulum. 1960. Dr. San Baw  at the Mandalay General Hospital in Burma pioneers the use of ivory hip prostheses to replace united fractures of the neck of the femur. 1964 Dr. Peter Ring, from Surrey, England starts a clinical trial with cement- less components with a metal-on- metal articulation. 97% of implants survived the years of follow up. 1970s’ Sir John Charnley replaces previous designs prior to the 1970s. Charnley's design consisted of three parts which connected to an Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene ace tabular component. 2012-  With 35 years of expertise in orthopaedics, Dr. Javier Cabrera patents the Bio Total Hip, a medical invention which is set to revolutionise Hip replacement surgery and its associated problems.
The process of manufacturing prosthesis parts requires large amounts of energy which add onto more unwanted environmental pollution.
  New York, March 2012 a team of 35  International bioscientists, government manufacturers and doctors hold a summit about arthritis. Among other conclusions they discuss  the Inadequacy of arthritic classification, the need for new treatments associated  to the symptoms in bone cartilage and joint structural abnormalities in the stages of disease. There are concerns in the scientific world about the treatment for arthrosis and the economical consequences of Arthroplasty surgery with its environmental issues.
www.biototalhip.com Sticks and stones could not fix our Bones more info Osteoarthrosis- Needless Pain. Information on Osteoarthrosis and how the Bio Hip can help rid the world from this Arthritic pain. Persistent Problems with Hip Surgery Hip replacement Surgery and its countless problems and risks. HISTORY OF HIP SURGERY A Historic journey through Hip replacement surgery and the men behind the innovations.
Dr. Javier M. Cabrera L.M.S. F.I.C.S.
Today, more than 193,000 total hip replacements are performed each year  in the United States alone. Similar surgical procedures on other damaged joints are performed including knees, shoulders, and elbows being the most common joints in need of repair.
March 1974. The XIX World Congress of   Surgery, Lima, Peru,   Members from the International College of Surgeons including the worlds most renowned orthopaedic surgeons from England, Europe and Australia gathered. Leading surgeons from the congress were asked to present their feedback on hip prosthesis surgery. Dr. Javier M. Cabrera LMS.FICS. reported success in orchestrating and implanting the first cemented total hip prosthesis within private hospitals. From this time onwards the FDA approved and granted the use of acrylic cement for prosthesis surgery throughout  the US. Since the 1974 congress millions of patients throughout the world have been treated with cemented total hip prosthesis within Private Hospitals.
X ray of the first cemented THP (McKee type ) performed by Dr. Cabrera in a Private Hospital.
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Hip Replacement History